Glossary for the State Energy Analysis Tool

A

ACEEE State Energy Efficiency Scores and Rankings [state profiles; comparisons; graphical sorting] – Rankings and raw scores in each of American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy’s (ACEEE) five energy efficiency categories (utility and public benefits programs and policies, transportation policies, building energy codes, state government initiatives, and appliance efficiency standards), and overall rank. Raw scores are presented with highest possible score in parentheses (higher scores represent a higher level of energy efficiency policy). Rankings are based on raw scores as compared to other states. The table also lists the average score for the region and the U.S. The rankings are for the year 2015 and were released in October 2016 by ACEEE.
Source: American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy. The 2016 State Energy Efficiency Scorecard, by Weston Berg et al. Report number U1606. 2016. www.aceee.org/state-policy/scorecard.

% Allowances vs. Emissions [exploring cap benefits tool] – Set by user, the percentage of state CO2 emissions from the baseline year for which allowances are auctioned. The default percentage of 90% approximates the percentage of allowances offered for auction in the first control period of the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative.

Allowance Price ($) [exploring cap benefits tool] – Set by user, the auction price for an allowance to emit one ton of CO2. This range reflects potential allowance prices under the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI)’s program in 2014, the first year of the revised RGGI cap, as reflected in modeling performed for the participating states. The 2014 cap will be set at a level based on 2012 emissions of the RGGI states. The lower bound of the range that users can select, $2.00 reflects the RGGI reserve price in 2014. The upper bound of the range that users can select, $7.30 (rounded from $7.27), reflects the highest projected 2014 price under any of the RGGI model rule scenario runs (including sensitivity scenarios; the allowance price comes from a sensitivity scenario assuming higher costs and no use of previously banked allowances). The default of $3.60 comes from the projected 2014 allowance price in the RGGI reference scenario that assumes no use of previously banked allowances.
Source: Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, “2013 Final Modelling Materials.” http://www.rggi.org/design/program-review/materials-by-topic/modeling (accessed May 21, 2014).

Annual Proceeds [exploring cap benefits tool]– The projected auction revenue from allowance sales, calculated by multiplying the state’s baseline CO2 emissions by the percentage of emissions allocated for auction by the auction price. [Baseline Emissions * (Auction Allocation / Baseline Emissions) * Allowance Price]

B

Baseline Emissions Year [exploring cap benefits tool]– The benchmark year used to determine the quantity of emissions allowances allocated in the emission budget tool. This year is set at 2011. The year 2011 was chosen because the revised RGGI regional CO2 emission cap that begins in 2014 is set equal to year 2012 emissions for the region, and 2011 is the most recent year of CO2 emissions by state available from EIA.

C

Carbon Pollution in the Power Sector [state profiles; comparisons; graphical sorting] – Annual metric tons of CO2 emissions from the total electric power sector in the state, including both emissions by electric utilities and industrial and commercial generators of electricity. Data is for years 2000-2011, released in 2012 by the EIA.
Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration. “U.S. Electric Power Industry Estimated Emissions by State: 1990-2015.” State Historical Tables EIA-767, EIA-906, EIA-920, and EIA-923. 2016. http://www.eia.gov/electricity/data/state/ (accessed December 19, 2016).

Carbon Pollution Ranking [graphical sorting] – States are assigned numbers 1 to 50 based on 2015 CO2 emissions from the electric power sector in the state. 1 represents the lowest CO2 emissions and 50 represents the highest. See carbon pollution in the power sector.

Carbon Pollution Rate from All Sources [state profiles; comparison; map]– CO2 emissions from the electric power sector in the state divided by total megawatt hours of electricity generated from all electricity-generating resources (including resources that do not emit any carbon emissions, such as renewable energy and nuclear electricity generation resources). State profiles and comparison provides rates for years 2000 to 2015. Calculated from carbon emissions from total electric power sector emission data, released in 2016 by the EIA, and total electricity generation data, released in 2016 by the EIA.

Carbon Pollution Rate from Fossil-Fuel Fired Sources [state profiles; comparison] – CO2 emissions from the electric power sector in the state divided by megawatt hours of electricity generated in the state from fossil-fuel fired electricity-generating resources only. State profiles and comparison provides rates for years 2000 to 2015. Calculated from carbon emissions from total electric power sector emission data (fossil sources only), released in 2016 by the EIA, and total electricity generation data, released in 2016 by the EIA.

Carbon Pollution Rate from All-Sources Ranking [graphical sorting] – States are assigned numbers 1 to 50 based on the 2015 carbon pollution rate for all sources in the state, with 1 being the lowest rate of carbon pollution and 50 being the highest rate of carbon pollution. Rank calculated from carbon pollution rate for all sources.
Carbon Pollution Rate from Fossil-Fuel Fired Sources Ranking [graphical sorting] – States are assigned numbers 1 to 50 based on the 2015 carbon pollution rate from fossil-fuel fired sources in the state, with 1 being the lowest rate of carbon pollution and 50 being the highest rate of carbon pollution. Rank calculated from carbon pollution rate from fossil-fuel fired sources.

% Change in Carbon Pollution [state profiles; comparison; map] – Percent change in CO2 emissions from 2005 to most recent year of data, 2015. Percent change calculated from carbon pollution in the power sector.

% Change in Carbon Pollution Rate from Fossil-Fuel Fired Sources [state profiles; comparison]– Percent change in CO2 emissions rate from fossil-fuel fired sources from baseline year 2005 to most recent year of data, 2015. Percent change calculated from carbon pollution rate from fossil-fuel fired sources.

% Change in Carbon Pollution Rate for All Sources [state profiles; comparison] – Percent change in CO2 emissions rate all electricity-generating sources from baseline year 2005 to most recent year of data, 2015. Percent change calculated from carbon pollution rate from all sources.

% Change in Electricity Generation by Fuel Source [state profiles; comparison] – Change in electricity generation by fuel source from 2000 to most recent year, 2015.

D

Decoupling [state profiles] – Disassociation of a utility’s revenues from sales. The purpose of decoupling is to remove financial disincentives for regulated utilities to help their customers become more energy efficient.
Source: Center for Climate and Energy Solutions. “Decoupling Policies.” U.S. Climate Policy Maps. www.c2es.org/us-states-regions/policy-maps/decoupling (accessed December 19, 2016).

Deregulation [state profiles; map] – Replacement of a monopoly system of electric utilities with competing sellers.
Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration. “Status of Electricity Restructuring by State. www.eia.gov/electricity/policies/restructuring/restructure_elect.html (accessed December 19, 2016).

E

Electricity Generation by Fuel or Resource Type [state profiles; comparison] – Annual net electricity generation by source type in megawatt hours (MWh). Data is for 2000-2015 and was released by the EIA in 2016.
Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration. “Net Generation by State by Type of Producer by Energy Source: 1990-2015.” State Historical Tables EIA-906, EIA-920, and EIA-923. http://www.eia.gov/electricity/data/state/ (accessed December 19, 2016).

Energy Production vs. Energy Consumption Ranks [graphical sorting] - States are assigned numbers 1 to 50, with 50 representing the highest ratio of energy production to consumption (i.e., a net exporter of energy) and 1 representing the lowest ratio of energy production to consumption (i.e., a net importer of energy). Production and Consumption data was released in 2016 by the EIA.

I

Industrial Energy Efficiency Spending [state profile] – Dollar quantities and relative rank for federal, state, non-public/other, benefit funds, American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, and total spending on industrial energy efficiency. The data is for 2010 and was released in April 2012 by ACEEE. Industrial energy efficiency spending includes incentives and rebates, grants, loans, technical assistance, energy audits and assessments, and a variety of other services that help encourage greater industrial energy efficiency.
Source: American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy. Money Well Spent: 2010 Industrial Energy Efficiency Program Spending, by Anna Chittum and Seth Nowak. State Summary Tables, Report Number IE121. 2012. http://aceee.org/research-report/ie121

Industrial Energy Efficiency Spending per Unit of Consumption [state profile; comparisons; map] – Total federal, state, utility, American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, and non-public dollars spent on industrial energy efficiency per billion British thermal units of industrial energy consumption. Calculated using 2010 industrial energy efficiency spending data and 2009 industrial energy consumption data released by ACEEE in April 2012.

Industrial Energy Efficiency Spending per Unit of Consumption Ranking {graphical sorting] – States are assigned numbers 1 to 50, with 50 representing the state with the highest energy efficiency spending per unit generation and 1 representing the state with the lowest energy efficiency spending per unit generation.

Intensity of Nitrous Oxides Emissions [state profiles] - The Nitrous Oxides (NOx) emission intensity represents pounds of nitrous oxides (NOx) emitted per megawatt hour (MWh) of electricity generated from the state's total electric power industry, including both utilities and commercial and industrial generators of electricity. Emissions data and electricity generation data is for 2015. Emissions data was released by the EIA in 2016. Total state electricity generation data was released by the EIA in 2016.
Sources: U.S. Energy Information Administration. “U.S. Electric Power Industry Estimated Emissions by State: 1990-2015.” State Historical Tables EIA-767, EIA-906, EIA-920, and EIA-923. http://www.eia.gov/electricity/data/state/ (accessed December 19, 2016).
U.S. Energy Information Administration. “Net Generation by State by Type of Producer by Energy Source: 1990-2015.” State Historical Tables EIA-906, EIA-920, and EIA-923. http://www.eia.gov/electricity/data/state/ (accessed December 19, 2016).

Intensity of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions [state profiles] - The sulfur dioxide intensity represents pounds of SO2 emitted per MWh of electricity generated from the state's total electric power industry, including both utilities and commercial and industrial generators of electricity. Emissions data and electricity generation data is for 2015. Emissions data was released by the EIA in 2016. Total state electricity generation data was released by the EIA in 2016.
Sources: U.S. Energy Information Administration. “U.S. Electric Power Industry Estimated Emissions by State: 1990-2015.” State Historical Tables EIA-767, EIA-906, EIA-920, and EIA-923. http://www.eia.gov/electricity/data/state/ (accessed December 19, 2016).
U.S. Energy Information Administration. “Net Generation by State by Type of Producer by Energy Source: 1990-2015.” State Historical Tables EIA-906, EIA-920, and EIA-923. http://www.eia.gov/electricity/data/state/ (accessed December 19, 2016).

Jobs Multipliers [exploring cap benefits tool] – Set by user, the projected number of jobs created per million dollars allocated to each category of revenue use. The jobs multiplier for any given state will depend on a number of case-specific factors, such as the structure of the state economy. One of the most important factors will be to what a state chooses to allocate auction proceeds, for example whether those proceeds are allocated to energy efficiency program, electricity consumer bill assistance, or state general fund expenditures. The range provided for user input, from 20 to 80 jobs per million dollars for all categories, reflects the upper and lower bounds found in analysis conducted by NESCAUM of projected economic impacts of investments of auction proceeds by states participating in the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) using the REMI model. The default value, 73 job years per million dollars invested, reflects the job multiplier found in the NESCAUM analysis for all of the participating states based on their actual investments of proceeds (largely into energy efficiency programs). Users may also choose 61 job years per million dollars invested, which represents the job multiplier found in the NESCAUM analysis based on participating RGGI states that only invested in demand-side energy efficiency programs. Users may also input other values within the provided range.

P

Potential Cap and Trade Auction Revenue [exploring cap benefits tool] – Projected revenues the state would raise from auctioning carbon emissions allowances corresponding to a fixed percentage of its emissions in the year 2000.

Potential for Reducing Electricity Use through Combined Heat and Power [state profiles; comparisons] – The technical potential to reduce electricity use through combined generation of heat and power (CHP). Technical potential estimates the potential for application of combined heat and power technologies based on technological considerations alone, expressed as the electricity generation capacity that could avoided because of CHP efficiency (in megawatts). Technical capacity does not take into account economic factors, and represents an upper bound of what might be possible. Estimates were released in 2010 in a report prepared by ICF International.
Source: ICF International. Effect of a 30 Percent Investment Tax Credit on the Economic Market Potential for Combined Heat and Power, by Bruce Hedman and Anne Hampson. 2010. http://www.localpower.org/WADE_USCHPA_ITC_Report.pdf

Q

Quantity of Energy Imports or Exports [state profiles; comparisons; map] - Annual estimates for 2000 to 2014 of total energy production (not just electricity) and total energy consumption by state in billion British Thermal Units (BTUs). Net production is calculated by subtracting consumption from production. Production and consumption data were released in 2016 by the EIA.
Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration. “All Production Estimates: 1960-2014.” State Energy Data System (SEDS): 1960-2014 (Complete). http://www.eia.gov/state/seds/seds-data-complete.cfm?sid=US#Production (accessed December 19, 2016).

R

Ratio of Energy Production to Consumption [state profiles; comparisons, graphical sorting] – Total energy production divided by total energy consumption. See quantity of energy imports or exports.

Regulatory Information [state profiles; map] – Information on whether the state has implemented the following regulatory structures: deregulation, retail choice, electricity decoupling, gas decoupling, renewable energy goal (type), and renewable energy percentage goal and target.
Sources: U.S. Energy Information Administration. “Status of Electricity Restructuring by State. www.eia.gov/electricity/policies/restructuring/restructure_elect.html (accessed December 19, 2016).
Center for Climate and Energy Solutions. “Decoupling Policies.” U.S. Climate Policy Maps. www.c2es.org/us-states-regions/policy-maps/decoupling (accessed December 19, 2016).Database of State Incentives for Renewables & Efficiency. “Renewable Portfolio Standard Policies.” Summary Maps. http://www.dsireusa.org/documents/summarymaps/RPS_map.pdf (accessed December 19, 2016).

Renewable Energy Technical Potential [state profiles; comparisons; map]– Renewable energy technical potential from different renewable energy resources (e.g., solar, wind, biomass, geothermal, hydropower) as a quantity of electricity that could be generated annually, in megawatt hours. Technical potential represents the achievable energy generation of a particular technology given system performance, topographic limitations, environmental, and land-use constraints. It establishes an upper-boundary estimate of renewable energy development potential. Data is for 2012 and was released in 2013 by NREL.
Source: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. U.S. Renewable Energy Technical Potentials: A GIS-Based Analysis, by Anthony Lopez, Billy Roberts, Donna Heimiller, Nate Blair, and Gian Porro. Technical Report NREL/TP-6A20-51946. Golden, Colorado, 2012.http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy12osti/51946.pdf. Data was updated in October 2013.

Renewable Energy Technical Potential Ranking [graphical sorting] – States are assigned numbers 1 to 50, with 50 representing the state with the highest renewable energy technical potential and 1 representing the lowest. Data is for 2012 and was released in 2013 by NREL.

Retail Choice [state profiles] – A regulatory structure that enables retail customers to select among competing electricity providers.

Retail Electricity Prices [state profiles] – Average in-state retail price expressed in cents per kilowatt hour. Data is for 2015, from the Energy Information Administration’s “Average retail price of electricity to ultimate customers,” released in October 2016.
Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration. “Average retail price of electricity to ultimate customers.” By state, by provider, annual back to 1990 (Form EIA-861). 2016. Electricity. http://www.eia.gov/electricity/data.cfm#sales.

Retail Electricity Prices Ranking [graphical sorting] – States are assigned numbers 1 to 50, with 50 representing the state with the highest retail electricity prices and 1 representing the lowest.

S

Spending on Retail Electricity as a Percentage of GDP [state profiles; comparisons; map] –Total retail electricity spending as a percentage of gross domestic product for individual states, regions, states participating in the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, and the United States. Calculated using 2014 data on electricity expenditures released in October 2016 by the Energy Information Administration’s State Energy Data System and 2014 data for gross domestic product released in December 2016 by the Bureau of Economic Analysis.
Sources: U.S. Energy Information Administration. “Total End Use Energy Expenditure Estimates, 2014.” State Energy Data System (SEDS): 1960-2014 (Complete), Table E9. http://www.eia.gov/state/seds/data.cfm?incfile=sep_sum/html/sum_ex_tx.html (accessed December 19, 2016).
U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis. “Gross Domestic Product by State 2014.” http://www.bea.gov/iTable/iTable.cfm?ReqID=70&step=1.

Spending Multipliers [exploring cap benefits tool] – Set by user, the projected increase in state gross domestic product per dollar invested. The spending multiplier for any given state will depend on a number of case-specific factors, such as the structure of the state economy. One of the most important factors will be to what a state chooses to allocate auction proceeds, for example whether those proceeds are allocated to energy efficiency program, electricity consumer bill assistance, or state general fund expenditures. The range provided for user input, from $1 to $5 of increase in state gross domestic product per dollar invested, reflects the upper and lower bounds found in analysis conducted by NESCAUM of projected economic impacts of investments of auction proceeds by states participating in the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) using the REMI model. The default value, $4.81 per dollar invested, reflects the spending multiplier found in the NESCAUM analysis for all of the participating states based on their actual investments of proceeds (largely into energy efficiency programs). Users may also choose $4.09 per dollar invested, which represents the spending multiplier found in the NESCAUM analysis based on participating RGGI states that only invested into demand-side energy efficiency programs. Users may also input other values within the provided range.

T

Total Jobs Added (job years) [exploring cap benefits tool] – The total projected increase in job years resulting from the use of auction revenues, based on the user’s selected jobs multiplier, allowance price, and percentage of baseline year emissions allocated to the state for auction.

Total Value Added ($M) [exploring cap benefits tool] – The total projected increase in state value added resulting from the use of auction revenues, based on the user’s selected spending multiplier, allowance price, and percentage of baseline year emissions allocated to the state for auction.

Type of Renewable Energy Goal [state profiles; map] – Renewable portfolio standards (standard) require electric utilities to produce a specified percentage of their electricity from renewable sources like solar, wind, biomass, and geothermal. Voluntary goals are non-binding programs based on a renewable energy target, often with financial incentives for utilities to make progress toward the target. Some states have voluntary goals on top on mandatory standards (standard and goal). For these states, the listed target percentage and year are for the mandatory standard. Other states have no standard or voluntary (none), so no target percentage or year are listed.

U

Underutilized Natural Gas Generation Capacity [state profiles; comparisons; graphical sorting; map] – Underutilized natural gas capacity in a states’ combined-cycle natural gas capacity fleet. This is based on a methodology used by the World Resources Institute (WRI) in their fact sheet series “Power Sector Opportunities for Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions.” A state's underutilized combined-cycle natural gas capacity is determined by calculating the difference between total generation at combined-cycle natural gas capacity facilities in the state and the amount of electricity that would be generated if facilities operated at 75% of their total annual operating capacity (based on their summer capacity figure). Data is for 2012 and was released in 2013 by the EIA.
Sources: U.S. Energy Information Administration. “Existing Nameplate and Net Summer Capacity by Energy Source, Producer Type and State: 1990-2012.” State Historical Table EIA-860. http://www.eia.gov/electricity/data/state/ (accessed May 12, 2014).
U.S. Energy Information Administration. “Net Generation by State by Type of Producer by Energy Source: 1990-2012.” State Historical Tables EIA-906, EIA-920, and EIA-923. http://www.eia.gov/electricity/data/state/ (accessed May 9, 2014).
World Resources Institute. Power Sector Opportunities for Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions. Michael Obeiter et al. Appendix A: Detailed Overview of Methodology and Modeling Assumptions. 2013. http://www.wri.org/power-sector-opportunities-reducing-carbon-dioxide-em.... (accessed May 21, 2014).